Am I right in thinking that you use the subjunctive plus не after бояться to indicate that you are afraid that something may happen?
So: Я боюсь, чтобы он не сломал себе руку - does this mean in English "I’m afraid he may break his arm / have broken his arm"?
Does Я боюсь, что он сломал себе руку mean the same?
Some options are possible.
Я боюсь, что он сломает себе руку. I am afraid he may break his arm.
Я боюсь, что он сломал себе руку. I am afraid she has broken his arm.
Я боюсь, как бы он не сломал себе руку. I am afraid he might break his arm.
In the last case the probability is lower than in the first case. Yes, it is something like the Subjunctive mood in the Russian language.
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